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Jainism and Environment

Jainism and Environment

Dhruti Ghiya Rathi



            The core value of Jainism is to be of service to one another expressed through the phrase Parasapagraho Jivanam. Jainism classifies living beings into various categories from having one to five senses. Categories of living beings include Plants and trees (vanaspatikaya), air (vayukaya), water (apkaya), fire (teukaya) and soil-earth (prithvikaya) and are the lowest category of living beings. Humans and mammals with five senses are a part of the highest category of living beings.

            The care for the soil-based micro-organisms is critical to the quality of nutrients in the soil. This in turn leads to a healthy ecosystem underground, which is responsible for the nutrients in the food that we eat. Jainism is very protective of the environment through its prescribed way of living. Some of the day-to-day Jain value highlights include the following:

Avoiding Root Vegetables

            By not consuming root vegetables, Jainism protects the micro-organisms, which are crucial for the right soil nutrients and plant growth. On uprooting the root vegetables, these micro-organisms would be destroyed. According to, the first 12-15% of the soil contains 87% of life. This observation is highlighted in Jain scriptures in relation to consumption of root vegetables harming innumerable life content.

Consumption of Fruits

            By stressing on eating of ripe fruits on certain days of the month, it helps nature to sustain itself and trees to pollinate by seed spreading, as also observed in the actions of birds and animals. Covering the soil with trees and plants, protects the carbon from escaping, reducing the carbon content in the atmosphere.

Saying no to Meat

            Ahimsa or Non-Violence is the core of Jain values. Insects and animals are considered more evolved than plants, vegetables, fruits and grains. Hence it encourages a vegetarian diet, leaving food chain  intact, for all other living beings.Besides, saving crucial natural resources utilized in producing fodder for animals raised for the purpose of meat consumption.

Actively realizing that soil is alive

            As Jainism considers soil alive with microorganisms, it prevents the use of harsh chemicals and pesticides that will accidentally harm the good nutrients and living microbes in the soil. Protecting all life (Ahimsa) is central to the Jain principles. That the soil is full of life, and is the basis of all life, is highlighted by Dr. Rattan Lal, Professor of Soil Science, Ohio State University.

No wastage of Food

            Care is taken so that no food is wasted. Thus, one takes only so much on the plate, as one can consume. Such minute awareness in everyday living, respects nature’s growth process, by acknowledging the resources spent by the soil, water, and sun to produce the vegetable. As we know, it sometimes takes nine months to produce an Avocado,  a common thing of consumption in today’s diet and Mexican dishes.

Aparigraha (Non-Hoarding and Non-Possession)

            A critical component of the fundamental values of Jainism includes Aparigraha. This means limiting one’s possessions. Applying this principle to everyday living, it encourages limiting   the number of things one owns, uses, and discards.  Discarded things are also reused and recycled, supporting the three pronged approach of Reduce, Reuse and Recycle.  It promotes conservation of precious natural resources for future generations and reducing our carbon footprint.

Encouraging composting

            As all life is crucial, Jainism encourages careful chopping of vegetables and fruits by removing the seeds aside.  It also ensures that accidental worms in vegetables and fruits are spared before cooking.  Dormant seeds regerminate when transferred back into the soil through composting. Transferring the food scraps to soil and leaving the yard waste, encourages improving the soil nutrients as they break down.


            In conclusion, by considering water, fire, air, and earth(soil) as important elements of the universe which need to be conserved and their usage minimized, Jainism ensures that the present and future generations are fed with balanced nutrients. Marine life and vegetation are protected, and humans interact with these elements with an awareness of the symbiotic relationship that exists among all the different categories of living beings as understood from the Jain scriptures. This also resonates with the current need of society in terms of taking steps to have cleaner air, water, food, and soil.

            Events such as World Soil Day  on December 5th, supported by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation and  the movement of,  highlight soil as one of the basic building blocks of life,  which has been considered worthy of respect by Jains since centuries and incorporated in the Jain philosophy. Soil is the base of all food, and a healthy body and mind are essential for the collective health of humanity. It brings to the fore the realization that many aspects of the Jain way of living are purposeful, scientifically supported and environmentally beneficial, not just for humans but for all the species of this world. As Jains, we should take pride in a religion that has always believed in co-existence with one another in mutually interdependent relation with all aspects of the environment.


©Dhruti Rathi 12/3/22